Coffee production


Coffee production

Discovery of coffee
One day, Khalid, an Arab shepherd sitting under the shade of a tree herding his sheep, he noted that his sheep behave very strange. Instead of grazing quietly, instead it jumps here and there, as if it had returned to her childhood again. And Khalid had already noted this behavior from the sheep before. Soon he realized that his sheep were pursuing this behavior after eating the red fruits of some evergreen trees. Then he decided to try some of these fruits to know what happens. When he did he became as active as his sheep, so it was naturally no to keep this secret for a long time, he has chosen a person to tell him about the secret, this person was one of the priests from a nearby monastery. The priests were Skeptical so he went to see for himself Khalids’ sheep. And when he saw its strange behavior he thought to try it, he prepared a drink from the seeds to see its impact on the Monks’ skills and activity. He was surprised when he saw the monks are more active, happy and wake, and they become more able to pray during the night! In fact We do not know how true is the story, but what is certain is that the habit of drinking coffee was first known in the Arab land for a very long time, and it moved to Europe (England in particular), in the seventeenth century, and the first coffee house was opened in Oxford in 1650, and soon many coffee shops were opened in France and Switzerland, and other countries.
Coffee tree

the scientific name for the common coffee plant is the Arab coffee tree and it had been originally growing in Ethiopia. Then it was planted in Java, Sumatra, India, the Arab island, and tropical Africa, Hawaii and Mexico, and Central and South America, and the West Indies.
Arab coffee tree is a plant with bright glossy evergreen leaves, ranging from a maximum height between 4.3 and 6, 1 m. The farmers usually pruning coffee bushes so as not to exceed 3, 7 m in length. The flowers of the Coffee plant are white and self-pollination.

Coffee seed is classified within the Pulp fruit, and begin to grow during the flowering, it is green at the beginning then it turns to be yellow, then red. The medium-sized tree produces about 0.7 kilograms of roasted coffee per year. Coffee tree needs about six to eight years before producing a full crop.

The popular species of coffee trees are growing well in tropical climates, in rang between 1,100 and 2,400 meters. And most of the coffee trees grow from seeds in the nurseries, and then moved after one year to the fields which are specifically designed for them. The number of seedlings per acre between 500 and 1000 seedlings

The flower
Coffee tree blooms for the first time, at the age of three or four years. The flower has a tubular shape, and the white corolla is usually divided into five petals. The flowers appear under the leaves, where it grows in heavy groups. In fact, the flowered coffee tree is so beauty, although the flowers don’t stay more than a few days.
Fruit and seed
Coffee fruit has an oval shape and a dark green color, but when it gets  six or seven months old it turns to the yellow color then to red Scarlet color . The coffee fruit is very much like the cherry fruits in shape and color so it is often called cherry.  The Red skin for cherry coffee is covered by beauty Pulp, lies inside it two seeds of coffee.  The two seeds also covered by the membrane which called ( Erqiq ), and there is also another thin cover called silver skin. The coffee beans have a distinctive shape, and one of its faces is splayed while the other like the dome and the two seeds which in each cherry, are facing each other from the splayed side. Sometimes cherry consist of one seed, and this so-called name Peas cluster and It’s expensive because of the special flavor that characterizes the coffee which is made from it.
Cultivation of coffee
Cultivation of coffee is from the seeds which are collected carefully from the best plants then it grows in nurseries until its first year. Soon after that it becomes small shrubs, where it spends the rest of its life fruitful. Coffee trees are usually looked after because of its importance in business. And good pruning makes its shape good and does not get higher which makes harvesting of cherry easier. Good fertilizing from time to time, rich of food for trees and spraying it by Pesticide will save it from the diseases which attack     coffee tree.
Harvesting of coffee
cherry is collected manually; the process of harvesting is slow because it does not mature at the same time, only matured cherry which could be harvested. For this reason harvesting takes several weeks till all cherries, matured. At the factory the seeds are taken out from the husks, pulp, thin-film and silver skin. Then the expensive seeds classified into several classes and packed in bags for export with capacity of 132 lbs.
coffee seeds are with a little flavor when harvested, in this stage coffee can’t be  made, but it must be roasted before use, roasting is usually within the metal-cylinder which heated by gas or electricity. Then it should be grinded and often mixed with several types of coffee to get the smell and flavor that you need.
the use of coffee is Common, so it is not surprising that there are several ways for coffee preparation. The simplest way for preparation is to pour boiling water over and the newly ground coffee beans and presenting it after four minutes. Another way is to add coffee to the cold water, and heat it until almost boiling, and then leave it for a period. Some people prefer to use complex machines for preparing coffee. Any way there are three principles which should be followed in preparing coffee first the use of fresh coffee, second using enough coffee, finally don’t let coffee boiling.  
Melting coffee
coffee could be grinding or dried by freezing and both processes needed enough water for making coffee. Melting coffee is made by putting the coffee powder in huge containers and then water vibrates. The remained grinding crystals powdered become once again coffee by adding water to it.

The dried melting coffee is made by freezing this happens by pressing the fresh coffee to juice, and it should be frozen to take the slabs forms. then these slabs grinded  and divided into large pieces, after that it is put  in the pressured air-conditioned rooms finally the moisture is sucked from the ice pieces and what is remained is crystals dried coffee .
A good cup coffee taste
the best way to get a good taste for a cup of coffee is by using a standard measure for coffee powder, or by adding two teaspoons full of coffee powder for each cup of coffee, and water should be taken from tap-water directly rather than hot water then it boils in a Kettle called ( Raoouk) where the boiling water could Interspersed the coffee powder slowly.
 Coffee types
there are more than one hundred species of coffee sold by retail stores, but it can be divided into three general types; are: Brazilian, cool taste and the strong bitter taste (Robusta).

Cold coffee taste is covering the all types of Arab coffee, which was produced outside Brazil.  But the strong bitter taste (Robusta) is a different type of coffee it is growing mostly in Africa. Coffee usually called by the name of the region where it planted in or by the port which exported from. Al mokhawi coffee derived from Almakha port in Yemen, the same with Javanese coffee it grows on the island of Java, or near it.

Coffee Roastery owners keen to add a special taste for the coffee combination; some people prefer to add the chicory or Cardamom to the coffee.